Study notes for Word Analysis of Quran Lesson 3, Surah Baqarah Ayats 6-7. I hope you find them beneficial to your studies.
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ أَمۡ لَمۡ تُنذِرۡهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ (٦) خَتَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمۡ وَعَلَىٰ سَمۡعِهِمۡۖ وَعَلَىٰٓ أَبۡصَـٰرِهِمۡ غِشَـٰوَةٌ۬ۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ۬ (٧)
These Verses 6-7 reveals – Warning is of no use for those who reject faith.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ أَمۡ لَمۡ تُنذِرۡهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
6. Indeed, those who disbelieve – it is all the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them – they will not believe.
إِنَّ – Inna, used for emphasis. Indeed this is a fact, this is a reality.
ٱلَّذِينَ – Allatheena, those who. Those people who have this particular characteristic.
|كَفَرُواْ||ك ف ر||kafaru||disbelieved||to cover something, to hide something|
- Kafir – in Arabic is used for the night because the night covers everything with its darkness. It is also used for ‘a farmer’ because the farmer covers the seeds with soil. So, to conceal.
- Kufur is to disbelieve in that which one must believe in. Believing in Allah is necessary.
The relationship between Kafir and Kufur:
- Kafir covers the truth – covers up by denying and promotes falsehood. Also covers the fitrah/nature Allah created us with a natural desire to believe.
- Kufur includes denial of Islam, ie atheism, other religions etc.
سَوَآءٌ – sawaaun, that which is equal from both sides, it is the same, it does not make any difference.
عَلَيۡهِمۡ – alayhim, It is the same upon them. This refers to the disbelievers. It makes no difference to them.
ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ – a’anthartahum – you warned them
|ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ||ن ذ ر||‘anthartahum||you warned them||to warn someone about something, to caution, to alert, to warn|
To warn somebody emphasising a level of fear. There are many different ways to warn someone.
- ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ is a warning done out of love, care and concern.
- It should be done in time, meaning, there is enough time for the person to prepare before any harmful thing happens.
- is used in the past tense.
أَمۡ لَمۡ – or did not
تُنذِرۡهُمۡ – tunthirhum you warn them – is future or present tense
It does not make a difference whether you warn them in the past, present, or warn them in the future, Allah says it is the same upon them, they will not believe.
لَا – not
يُؤۡمِنُونَ – they believe.
They will not believe. They will totally ignore the warning. There is emphasis put on all the tenses past, present and future, but it will not make a difference, they will not take the warning. The reason is given in the next verse.
خَتَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمۡ وَعَلَىٰ سَمۡعِهِمۡۖ وَعَلَىٰٓ أَبۡصَـٰرِهِمۡ غِشَـٰوَةٌ۬ۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ۬
7. Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil. And for them is a great punishment.
|خَتَمَ||خ ت م||khatama||(he) sealed||to put a seal on something|
Khatama is metaphorical, not physical. When something is sealed nothing can go in or out. An example:
- Their ears become deaf, their eyes are blinded to the merits of their own doctrine so the truth cannot be seen or heard.
- Khatamun Nabiyyeen the Seal of the Prophets. The last Prophet to have brought a complete and comprehensive universal law for humanity Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). No other Prophet is going to be sent by Allah.
مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً
Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Last of the Prophets.. (33:40)
أَبۡصَـٰرِهِمۡ – Absaurihim plural of the word “basar” is used for eyes, the faculty of seeing, sight.
|غِشَـٰوَةٌ||غ ش ى||ghishawa||a cover/veil||to cover, to veil something|
- ghishawa is used to cover something
- kafara was to hide something
Ghishawa is generally a covering through which a little can still be seen. So there is still some hope for the disbelievers. Although they can’t hear and their hearts are sealed, Allah is merciful and has given them a translucent opening so they may recognise the truth.
وَلَهُمۡ – and for them – referring to those who are stubborn in their disbelief.
|عَذَابٌ||ع ذ ب||‘athaab||a punishment||to stop eating or drinking, chastisement, palatable, sweet|
This one word connects to different meanings:
- A person is so thirsty that he is unable to sleep or eat.
- So thirsty that they cannot enjoy other pleasures.
- Imprisonment and prevention – to be confined in one place.
- To take the sweetness away from something – a state in which there is torture, confinement.
So there is something in ‘adhaab that prevents one from living and enjoying life. All the pleasures of life are taken away indicating extreme agony.
- no pleasure
- no life
- no death
- no food
- no sleep
- no enjoyment
|عَظِيمٌ۬||ع ظ م||‘adheem||a great||used for something that is enormous|
‘adheem is describing the punishment.
- Punishment of Fire
- Everlasting, eternal, never-ending
- Great in intensity.
Their punishment is عَظِيمٌ۬ (great) because of their persistence and stubbornness in their disbelief.