Study notes for Word Analysis of Quran Lesson 4, Surah Baqarah Ayahs 8-16.  I hope you find them beneficial to your studies.


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These ayahs cover the hypocrites and the consequences of hypocrisy.


وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَبِٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤۡمِنِينَ

8.  And from the people who they say, We believe in Allah and the Last Day,  but they are not believers.

وَمِنَ – And from مِنَ Min is from and gives the meaning of part of, or some of.  From the people, there are some  who have such characteristics, but not all the people.

ٱلنَّاسِ – the people
Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
ٱلنَّاسِ ن و ى annas the people movement
  ن س ى annas the people forgetfulness

People are always moving about, they are also forgetful. Even with our memories, we tend to forget, its part of human nature and a test.  For example, if you have memorised some Quran, if you do not practice and repeat it, you will forget.


مَن – Who

يَقُولُ – he says
Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَقُولُ ق و ل yaqoolu  (he) says something that is said

There are some people who declare they believe. They say by their tongue, but they don’t mean their statements.


ءَامَنَّا- amanna, we believed. This is two words. ءَامَنَّا aman and na,  we believe.

بِٱللَّ – in Allah

وَبِٱلۡيَوۡمِ – wa-and,  bi-in,  ٱلۡيَوۡمِ – the day

ٱلۡأَخِرِ –  the last 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
ٱلۡأَخِرِ ا خ ر akhiri Last go backwards, retreat, hold back,

This is Describing the day. The Day of Judgment, after which there will be no sense of time.


وَمَا – wama, and not. وَ wa-and مَا not.  Ma can have several meanings, the most common is ‘what’ or ‘not’.

بِمُؤۡمِنِينَ – bimumineen, In the least, believers. بِمُؤۡمِنِينَ Bi-In the least.  Here, the bi is used for emphasis. It is not being used in its literal sense but rather to emphasise they do not have belief in their hearts.


يُخَـٰدِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَمَا يَخۡدَعُونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَمَا يَشۡعُرُونَ

9. They (try) to deceive Allah and those who believe, but they deceive not except themselves and yet they do not realize it.

يُخَـٰدِعُونَ – they (try) deceive 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يُخَـٰدِعُونَ خ د ع yukhadi’oona they (try to) deceive to deceive others, to say something but do something else.

To be hypocritical and keep a person in darkness about the reality, by not telling them your intentions of what you will do. So, to say something false or something partly true.


ٱللَّهَ – Allah. They try to deceive Allah.    word-analysis -of-quran-baqarah-8-16-lesson-4-studentsofquran.com

وَٱلَّذِينَ wallatheena, and those who.

ءَامَنُواْ – amanu,  they believed.

They try to deceive Allah and the believers by pretending to be believers.

وَمَا – wama, and not

يَخۡدَعُونَ – they deceive 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَخۡدَعُونَ خ د ع yakhadi’oona they deceive to deceive, to say something but do something else

The root meaning is the same as يُخَـٰدِعُونَ but there is a small difference in the form; this makes a small difference in meaning as well.

  • يَخۡدَعُونَ    They definitely deceive themselves, an individual level.
  • يُخَـٰدِعُونَ   They try to deceive Allah.  As a group, they collaborate with each other to try to deceive Allah but they are not successful. 

إِلَّآ – except

أَنفُسَهُمۡ – anfusaum, themselves. By pretending to be believers they are not deceiving Allah or the believers, only themselves. أَنفُسَهُمۡ is from the word nafs soul. They only deceive their own nafs, their own selves

وَمَا – wama, and not

يَشۡعُرُونَ – they perceive 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَشۡعُرُونَ ش ع ر yash’uroon they perceive the ability to sense something

And they do not perceive that they are actually deceiving themselves.  They do not perceive that they are only bringing harm to themselves.

The word شۡعُر  is also from the same root word used for hair. Hair is very fine and thin. Pertaining to knowledge, it is to know the fine details of something. They do not perceive the fine details or the consequences of their actions.


فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ۬ فَزَادَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مَرَضً۬ا‌ۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمُۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡذِبُونَ

10. In their hearts is disease, so Allah has increased their disease; and for them is a painful punishment because they [habitually] used to lie.

فِى – fi, in

قُلُوبِهِم – their hearts 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
قُلُوبِهِم ق ل ب quloobihim their hearts to turn about 

 The heart,  is never still, our feelings and emotions are always moving and turning about.

مَّرَضٌ۬ – a disease 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
مَّرَضٌ۬ م  ر ض Maradun a disease ailment, sick, weak or feeble, deficient in strength

This word is generally used for a disease or an illness and can apply to mental, psychological or spiritual afflictions. Here, they do not have a physical disease but rather it is a spiritual one of doubt and hypocrisy.

فَزَادَهُمُ – so (He) increased them 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
فَزَادَهُمُ  ز ى د fazadahum so (He) increased them increased

The letter فَ generally has many meanings in Arabic.  فَزَادَهُمُ fazadahum, here it means so,  (He) increased them. Here, the fa gives the meaning, because of,  or as a result, and the root word زى د  ziad gives the meaning increase, more.


ٱللَّهُ – Allah,

مَرَضً۬ا‌ – marada – a disease.   Because they chose not to cure their disease, Allah allowed the disease to grow.

.وَلَهُمۡ – walahum,  and for them.  hum referring to the hypocrites.

عَذَابٌ – ‘adhabun,  a punishment.

أَلِيمُ – a painful 

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
أَلِيمُ ء ل م aleemun a painful to feel pain, extreme pain

The root word Alam gives the meaning to feel pain, Aleem comes from this root word which gives more emphasis to the word. It is extremely painful and repeatedly painful.  That which will bring them pain over and over again, not just physical pain, but also emotional pain. There is intensity and repetition in words like Aleem, Rajeem, Raheem, Adheem.


بِمَا – bima, because of what
كَانُواْ – kaanu, they were.  When kaanu comes before a verb, it gives the meaning of doing something habitually. They didn’t just lie once about being believers, they did so repeatedly.

يَكۡذِبُونَ – they lie  

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَكۡذِبُونَ ك د ب yakdhiboon they lie to lie

A lie is to give false information deliberately. To present falsehood as reality. They used to lie to the Prophet (pbuh) and the believers.


وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ لَا تُفۡسِدُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّمَا نَحۡنُ مُصۡلِحُونَ

11. And when it is said to them, “Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but reformers.”

وَإِذَا – wa itha,  and when

قِيلَ – it was said  

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
قِيلَ ق و ل qeela it was said something that is said

قِيلَ qeela and يَقُولُ yaqulu are from the same root word qowl. There are many other branching words from this root.

لَهُمۡ – lahum,  to them

لَ – la, not

تُفۡسِدُواْ – you all do mischief  

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
تُفۡسِدُواْ ف س د tufsidu you all do mischief to become bad, to be rotten, to be spoiled

To create fasad in the land, to create corruption.


فِى – fi, in

ٱلۡأَرۡضِ – the earth  

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
ٱلۡأَرۡضِ ا رض aladhi the earth rotate, bring forth herbs, fruitful land

It is said to them, do not do fasaad on the earth. Fasad fil ardh is of two types:

  1. Tangible-  cutting too many trees, disrupting homes, pollution, etc.
  2. Intangible- people creating ill feelings among people, lying, spreading falsehood.

قَالُوٓاْ – they said

قَالُوٓاْ – qaloo, they said – another form from the same root  ق و ل qowl.

يَقُولُ yaqoolu  He said
قِيلَ qeela it was said
قَالُوٓاْ qaloo they said

إِنَّمَا – innama,  indeed, not but. Indeed, nothing but this, this is the reality.  Innama gives the meaning of:

  1. indeed
  2. it limits the meaning

Inna means, indeed and ma is there to limit the meaning.


نَحۡنُ – nahnu, we

مُصۡلِحُونَ – ones who make peace

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
مُصۡلِحُونَ ص ل ح muslihoon ones who make peace to fix things, reform things

This root word Islah is the opposite of fasaad. Islah is to fix things, reform things; whereas fasaad is to destroy, corrupt, spoil.


أَلَآ إِنَّهُمۡ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدُونَ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا يَشۡعُرُونَ

12. Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not.

أَلَآ – ala, unquestionably.  Alif and La both together make a word used for the purpose of exclamation or warning (!) . Also used for the person of alerting the listener.

إِنَّهُمۡ – innahum, indeed they

هُمُ – hum, they

ٱلۡمُفۡسِدُونَ – almufsiduna, those who do mischief

وَلَـٰكِن – walakin, but

لَّا – la, not
يَشۡعُرُونَ – yash’uroon, they perceive. They do not perceive, understand, realize,  that they are those who do fasaad.


وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ ءَامِنُواْ كَمَآ ءَامَنَ ٱلنَّاسُ قَالُوٓاْ أَنُؤۡمِنُ كَمَآ ءَامَنَ ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّهُمۡ هُمُ ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا يَعۡلَمُونَ

13. And when it is said to them, “Believe as the people have believed,” they say, “Should we believe as the foolish have believed?” Unquestionably, it is they who are the foolish, but they know [it] not.

وَإِذَا – waitha, and whenword-analysis-of-quran-lesson-4-baqarah-8-16-studentsofquran.com
قِيلَ – qeela,  it was said
لَهُمۡ – lahum, to them (hypocrites)

ءَامِنُواْ – aminu, you all believe

كَمَآ – kama,  just as

ءَامَنَ – amana, he believed
ٱلنَّاسُ – annaasu, the people (Sahaba)

قَالُوٓاْ – qaloo, they said
أَنُؤۡمِنُ – anu’minu, should we believe.   أَنُؤۡمِنُ should we believe

كَمَآ – kama,  just as
ءَامَنَ – amana, he believed

ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ – the foolish ones

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ س ف ه as sufahu the foolish ones to be foolish, silly, stupid, to be light in weight

They are calling the believers foolish, thinking that they are very light in their thinking, not strong headed. The hypocrites called ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ because they thought, look at how easily they left their religion.


أَلَآ – ala, unquestionably

إِنَّهُمۡ – innahum, indeed they

هُمُ – hum, they
ٱلسُّفَهَآءُ – assufaha’u, the foolish ones.

وَلَـٰكِن – walakin, but

لَّا – la, not

يَعۡلَمُونَ – they know

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَعۡلَمُونَ ع ل م ya’lamoon they know knowledge

Ilm – Knowledge


وَإِذَا لَقُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ شَيَـٰطِينِهِمۡ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَكُمۡ إِنَّمَا نَحۡنُ

مُسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ

14. And when they meet those who believe, they say, “We believe”; but when they are alone with their evil ones, they say, “Indeed, we are with you; we were only mockers.”

 

وَإِذَا – waitha, and when

لَقُواْ – they met

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
لَقُواْ ل ق ى laqu they met to meet someone

To meet someone, to come face to face with the other.


ٱلَّذِينَ – allathina, those who
ءَامَنُواْ – amanu, they believed

قَالُوٓاْ – qaloo, they said
ءَامَنَّا- amanna,  we believed.

وَإِذَا – waitha, and when

خَلَوۡاْ – they were alone

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
خَلَوۡاْ خ ل و khalow they were alone empty space, to be empty

خَلَوۡاْ is used here as a figurative expression, meaning, when they are alone with; to be in seclusion with; only them and their satans, referring to their leaders.  Just as Shaytaan commands wrong, their leaders are also called satans.


إِلَىٰ – ila, with

شَيَـٰطِينِهِمۡ – their satans

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
شَيَـٰطِينِهِمۡ ش ط ن shayateenihum their satans to be far away

One who opposes the truth.


قَالُوٓاْ – qaloo, they said

إِنَّا – inna,  indeed we

مَعَكُمۡ – ma’akum, (are) with you.

إِنَّمَا – innama,  indeed, not but

نَحۡنُ – nahnu, we

مُسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ – ones who mock

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
مُسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ ہ زء mustahzi’un ones who mock to mock, to make fun of someone

To make someone a target of laughter.  They said we were only mocking when we said we are believers.


ٱللَّهُ يَسۡتَہۡزِئُ بِہِمۡ وَيَمُدُّهُمۡ فِى طُغۡيَـٰنِهِمۡ يَعۡمَهُونَ

15. [But] Allah mocks them and prolongs them in their transgression [while] they wander blindly.

ٱللَّهُ – Allahu, Allah
يَسۡتَہۡزِئُ – yastahziu,  He mocks

بِہِمۡ – bihim,  at them

وَيَمُدُّهُمۡ – and He extends them

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
وَيَمُدُّهُمۡ م د د wa yamuddu hum and He extends them to extend something

To extend something. Madd in tajweed is to extend the sound.


فِى – fi, in
طُغۡيَـٰنِهِمۡ – tugyanihim,  their transgression.  Allah lets them go further and further in their wrongdoing, their transgression is their lying.

يَعۡمَهُونَ – they wander blindly

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
يَعۡمَهُونَ ع م ه ya’mahoon they wander blindly to be confused

They are unable to see that which is very obvious. They don’t recognize the obvious truth. They are living amongst the believers, yet they are still wandering blindly.


أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةَ بِٱلۡهُدَىٰ فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَـٰرَتُهُمۡ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهۡتَدِينَ

16.  Those are the ones who have purchased error [in exchange] for guidance, so their transaction has brought no profit, nor were they guided.

أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ – ulaaika, those

ٱلَّذِينَ – allathina, those who

ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ – they purchased

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ س ر ى ishtarawu they purchased to buy something

the root Shira – gives the meaning of buying and selling at the same time; to exchange. It also gives the meaning of preferring something over something else.


ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةَ – adalalata, the misguidance
بِٱلۡهُدَىٰ – bilhuda, instead of the guidance.

فَمَا – fama, so not

رَبِحَت – it profited

Arabic Root Transliteration English Meaning
رَبِحَت  ر ب ح rabihat it profited to profit

تِّجَـٰرَتُهُمۡ – tijaratuhum, their trade

وَمَا – wama, and not

كَانُواْ – kaanu, they were

مُهۡتَدِينَ – muhtadeen, ones who obtain guidance.  Guidance was all around them but they did not internalize the guidance.


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