Study notes for Word Analysis of Quran Lesson 2, Surah Baqarah Ayats 1-5. I hope you find them beneficial to your studies.
الٓمٓ (١) ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ لَا رَيۡبَۛ فِيهِۛ هُدً۬ى لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ (٢) ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ يُنفِقُونَ (٣) وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ وَبِٱلۡأَخِرَةِ هُمۡ يُوقِنُونَ (٤) أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ عَلَىٰ هُدً۬ى مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ (٥)
Surah Al-Baqarah has 286 verses, 25,500 words.
This Surah is called Al-Baqarah which literally means The Cow, named after the story of the Cow, in verses 67-73.
These verses (1-5) cover the revelation of Quran, it contains no doubtful statement and is a guide for those who are God-conscious.
1. Alif, Laam, Meem
Alif, Lam, Meem: This is Huruf-e-Muqatta'at, which means the disjointed letters. These letters are to be read separately and not together like you would when pronouncing the English alphabet. Here, the letters are written together in Arabic but not to be pronounced together.
الٓمٓ - these three letters together do not have a linguistic meaning but the Scholars have indicated they have a purpose:
- to prove the miraculous nature of the Quran.
- to exalt the next ayah to be read
- to alert the reader to listen
ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ لَا رَيۡبَۛ فِيهِۛ هُدً۬ى لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ
2. This is The Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah
|ذَٲلِكَ||thalika||that|| to point towards something far
In Arabic Grammar:
ذَٲلِكَ that - points to something far
هذا this - points to something near
Here, ذَٲلِكَ is used to exalt what is being pointed out. That Book, it indicates that the Quran is not an ordinary Book.
|ڪِتَـٰبُ||ك ت ب||kitabu||book||to write something
that which is written, recorded
A book as many concepts, topics, sentences are joined and written together.
ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ The Book. Here a ٱل (the) is added to make the word a proper noun, specific, The Book, (the entire Quran).
|لَا||la||no||used for negation
|رَيۡبَ||ر ب ب||rayba||doubt||to make uncertain|
رَيۡبَ is a doubt that makes a person restless, they always feel anxious, they have mental unrest. Allah says that this Book is free of that doubt.
فِيهِۛ in it - It, is referring to The Book. There is no doubt that this Book is from Allah There is also no doubt about anything in the Quran. A believer will not for a moment doubt anything in the Qur'an. It is all fact and it will all happen.
|هُدً۬ى||ه د ى||huda||guidance||to show the path, to help them on the path, to take them to their destination|
This Book is a clear guide that shows the path. If you remain on the path prescribed, you will, by the will of Allah reach the final destination.
|لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ||و ق ى||lil muttaqeen||(those who adopt) taqwa||to take protection, to take a shield, ward off|
Those who adopt taqwa safeguard themselves. Taqwa is what saves one from sinning and disobeying Allah. If a person disobeys Allah knowingly, they are then inviting the punishment of Allah. Taqwa is two things:
- to obey Allah and what he has commanded
- to abstain from what he has forbidden
If you do these two things then you will have taqwa.
ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ يُنفِقُونَ
3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them
ٱلَّذِينَ those who
|يُؤۡمِنُونَ||ء م ن||yu'minoona||(they) believe||a blessing that fulfills some need of a person ie. emaan, faith, piety|
يُؤۡمِنُونَ comes from emaan (faith) which has three aspects:
Tasdeeq bil qalb: to affirm something in the heart to be true - Al Haqq
Iqra' bil lisaan: to say it with the tongue - Shahada
Amal bil Jawarih: manifests into worship - Action
|بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ||غ ى ب||bil ghaybi||(in the) unseen||that which is unseen, absent, concealed, backbiting|
Refers to all that is beyond and hidden from the human senses. To backbite a person, you do this when they are hidden from you, they are not in your presence. You cannot hear, touch, smell, see or feel the unseen. Ghayb is also of two types:
General Ghayb: you cannot see or know what is happening in the next room.
Specific Ghayb: The Angels, The Jinn, Qiyama, Allah, Hell Fire, Heaven etc
The Specific Ghayb is that which we have not seen but a Muslim is required to believe in them all.
|يُقِيمُونَ||ق و م||yuqeemoona||(they) perfectly establish||to make something stand straight, establish something, to perfect|
To perfect something as it should be established, such as the five daily prayers.
|ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ||ص ل و||as salaah||(the) prayer||to burn, follow closely, supplication, blessing|
When gold is burned, all impurities are removed they are burned away, likewise the Salaah burns or extinguishes the sins of a person.
The Salaah does not refer to Dua, which is a supplication that can be made at any time with or without wudu. The Salaah refers to the ritual Salaah. It is a prayer that is performed in a set manner five times a day. The Salaah is also established by meeting the conditions.
|رَزَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ||ر ز ق||razaq'nahum - rizq||(we provided them) sustenance||every beneficial thing, to provide, means of subsistence, bounty|
رَزْق provision - Allah provides provisions for every living thing in order for them to survive, ie, fish require water, animals require grass, people require food, shelter, etc., rain which brings forth sustenance is a blessing that we need to survive. Rizq is also of two types:
- Tangible: food, house, bed, family, physical, skills, talent, money etc
- Intangible: emaan, time, knowledge, etc
|يُنفِقُونَ||ن ف ق||yunfiqoon
|(they) spend||to spend, to come out of a hole, when something is used up, expenditure|
If there is a hole within something, whatever is inside will not stay. If there is a hole in your pocket nothing will stay inside. This is like those who spend their wealth. They do not store or hoard their rizq (provision). They spend for the sake of Allah, on themselves, their families and charity. It does not mean literally a hole in the pocket, rather it shows that they are not selfish and greedy. As money comes to them it goes straight out.
وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
4. And who believe in what has been revealed to you, (O Muhammad), and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter they are certain (in faith)
وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا and those, they believe in what
|أُنزِلَ||ن ز ل||onzila
|it was sent down||to come down from above, to descend|
The Quran, the revelation that has been sent down.
وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن and what was revealed from... meaning they also believe in that which was revealed from before the Quran.
|قَبْلِكَ||ق ب ل||qabilik
|before (you)||in front, before in time or in place|
Qiblah is also from the same root - in front of us.
Here قِبْلَ is referring to the previous Books that were revealed before the Quran. They believe in all the previous books such as:
- and others we do not know of
|الْاَخِرَةِ||ء خ ر||akhirah
|(the) heareafter||that which comes later, that which comes at the end|
Once the Dunya (worldly) life is over الْاَخِرَةِ the hereafter will begin. The hereafter starts from the moment of death and includes:
- Questioning in the grave
- Jannah and Naar (paradise & hell)
هُمْ them they, the people who believe in all the mentioned characteristics
|يُوقِنُون||ى ق ن||yuqinoon
|(they are) certain||to know something for sure, firm, certainty, to be sure|
They have knowledge and belief that is free from any doubt. Their attitudes are firm, not an attitude of maybe; It will definitely happen. They know for sure and strongly believe in heaven and hell.
أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
5. Those are upon (right) guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful
أُولَٰئِكَ those people. Olaika is the plural of thalika - that
- believe in the unseen
- believe the Quran
- believe in the books that were sent before
- they establish the Salaah
- they spend from their rizq (provisions)
عَلَىٰ upon هُدًى guidance - those people who follow Allah's guidance are firmly on the right path مِّن from رَّبِّهِمْ their Rabb. They are given (tawfeeq) guidance from their Rabb وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ and those/they - such people are successful.
|الْمُفْلِحُونَ||ف ل ح||al muflihoon
|(those who are) successful||success, cultivate, till the ground, cutting, splitting, to endure, to prosper|
Farmer is derived from this root word falah. A farmer is someone who works very hard every day. He toils the land, he works long hours from dawn to sunset spends the entire day on the farm, putting in hard work. A farmer is successful only after putting in a lot of work.
Success is also derived from this root word falah. The success that a person attains after putting in a lot of struggles and effort. These people work their entire lives, they don't take breaks. Just like a farmer, the believer has to wait for their reward. By Allah's Mercy, they will attain Jannah and be saved from the hellfire.