Study notes for Word Analysis of Quran Lesson 5, Surah Baqarah Ayahs 17-20. I hope you find them beneficial to your studies.
These Ayahs cover the examples of the hypocrite’s deeds
مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَ تَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ
17. Their example is that of one who kindled a fire, but when it illuminated what was around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness [so] they could not see.
|مَثَلُهُمْ||م ث ل||mathaluhum||their example||to resemble something|
كَمَثَلِ – kamathali – like example. The ka = like
الَّذِي – Allathi – the one who
|اسْتَوْقَدَ||و ق د||Istowqada||he kindled ||to light fire, to kindle a fire|
Also understood as telling someone else to light the fire.
نَارًا – a fire
فَلَمَّا – falamma – then when. fa = then. The ‘fa’ is used to give the order of events. lamma = when.
|أَضَاءَتْ||ض و ء||‘Adhaat||it illuminated ||to shine, to glow, radiate|
From the same root word that is used for light. A light that radiates heat. Such a light that is pale with three characteristics of:-
- Reddish or pale
مَا – what
|حَوْلَهُ||ح و ل||howlahu||his surroundings ||surround, to be changed|
Howl – Used for the year because each year goes around; also means to change. Every year things are always changing. ‘hu’ (him) refers to the person who lit the fire or asked for the fire to be lit. He asked for the light to be turned on, so he could see things clearly.
|ذَهَبَ||ذ ه ب||dhahaba||He went||to go away, Gold|
Is also used for Gold. Gold and going away; People mostly have a fear of gold going away. If they travel somewhere, they want to ensure their Gold is in a safe place. Gold also has to go away in Zakat.
اللَّهُ – Allah
بِنُورِهِمْ – went with their light. Allah took the light away. بِنُورِهِمْ, ‘bi‘ at the beginning gives the meaning of ‘took away’. Allah took away their light. Nurihim, ‘him‘ refers to the one who asked the light to be lit. Nur refers to the light with no heat in it. The light was taken away but the heat remained. This light is understood as an internal light.
|تَرَكَهُمْ||ت ر ك||tarakahum||He left them||to leave something or someone|
Allah left these people, فِي – in
|ظُلُمَاتٍ||ظ ل م||dhulumatin||darknesses||injustice|
Injustices will be darkness on the Last Day.
|يُبْصِرُونَ||ب ص ر||yub’siroon||they see||to see, understand, comprehend|
They don’t see at all and they are in complete confusion.
صُمٌّۢ بُكۡمٌ عُمۡىٌ فَهُمۡ لَا يَرۡجِعُوۡنَ ۙ
18. They are deaf, they are dumb, they are blind, they will never return to the Right Way
|صُمٌّۢ||س م م||summun||ones who are deaf||to be deaf, cork|
صُمٌّۢ is used for a cork, it covers, plugs and blocks. It gives the meaning to be blocked. You cannot put something in or take anything out.
|بُكۡمٌ||ب ك م||bukmun||ones who are dumb||unable to speak|
This word is used for someone who has never spoken a word since birth. They are also unable to understand or reply.
|عُمۡىٌ||ع م ى||umyun||ones who are blind||blind, dark, conceal|
A person who is physically blind. It is also used for someone who is confused.
These people are deaf, dumb, and blind to the truth. They don’t hear the truth, don’t speak the truth, and they can’t see the truth. This is their spiritual state, not a physical state. فَهُمۡ لَ – so they not
|يَرۡجِعُوۡنَ||ر ج ع||yarji’oon||(they) return||to return, to go back|
They will not return to the light. They will not return to guidance.
أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ
19. Or it is like a rainstorm from the sky within which is darkness, thunder and lightning. They put their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps in dread of death. But Allah is encompassing of the disbelievers.
|كَصَيِّبٍ||ص و ب||ka sayyibin||heavy rain||to reach again and again|
to hit the mark
Heavy rain falls, again and again, it goes on for a long time. Sayyibin is a rainstorm with thunder and lightning it reaches and hits the ground and comes with a lot of force
|السَّمَاءِ||س م و||as samaa’||the sky||gives the meaning of height|
a roof, a ceiling, clouds up high
As Samaa’ is not just used for the sky but also for height, a roof, a ceiling or clouds up high.
فِيهِ – in ظُلُمَاتٌ – :Darkness(es). Many layers of darkness referring to the darkness of the heavy clouds. The darkness of the rain itself and the darkness of the night. They can’t see clearly.
|رَعْدٌ||ر ع د||ra’ad||thunder||thunder, tremble,|
|بَرْقٌ||ب ر ق||barq||lightning||shining, gleaming, menacing|
يَجْعَلُونَ – they put
|أَصَابِعَهُمْ||ص ع ب||asaubi’ahum||their fingertips||to point out with finger, to indicate|
أَصَابِعَهُمْ is understood as in, (a) the whole finger or (b) the fingertip.
فِي – in آذَانِهِم – their ears مِّنَ – because of
|الصَّوَاعِقِ||ص ع ق||asawaiqi||the thunderbolts||to smite or strike, thunderclap|
Thunderclap – thunder and lightening together
حَذَرَ – due to fear الْمَوْتِ – death – this ayah is saying, they put their fingers in their ears because of the thunderbolts due to fear of death. They are scared of the loud sound, they will die if they don’t put their fingers in their ears. وَاللهُ – and Allah
|مُحِيطٌ||ح و ط||muhitun||one who always encompasses||to encompass, to encircle|
Allah encircles them through His Knowledge and His Power. They cannot escape Him.
بِالْكَافِرِينَ – with the disbelievers.
يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَـرَهُمْ كُلَّمَآ أَضَآءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْاْ فِيهِ وَإِذَآ أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُواْ وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَـرِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Every time it lights [the way] for them, they walk therein; but when darkness comes over them, they stand [still]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.
|يَكَادُ||ك و د||yakadu||it is near||almost, it is about to happen|
الْبَرْقُ – the lightning
|يَخْطَفُ||خ ط ف||yakhtafu||It takes away||to snatch something away quickly|
أَبْصَـرَهُمْ – their sights كُلَّمَآ – whenever, giving the meaning, each and every time. أَضَآءَ – it illuminated. Each time the lightning illuminated the surrounding لَهُم – for them مَّشَوْاْ – they walked فِيهِ – in it (the light) وَإِذَآ – and when أَظْلَمَ – it darkened عَلَيْهِمْ – upon them
|قَامُواْ||ق و م||qamu||they stood||stand still or firm|
They just stood still. They walk only for some time, but for most of the time they are standing, they hardly move.
وَ لَوْ – and if شَآءَ – He willed اللهُ – Allah لَذَهَبَ – Surely, He went. (If Allah willed, He could have just taken away their hearing)
|بِسَمْعِهِمْ||س م ع||bisam’ihim||with their hearing||the ear, the ability to hear|
Allah could have taken their ability to hear completely.
وَ أَبْصَـرِهِمْ – and their sights إِنَّ – indeed اللهَ – Allah عَلَى – upon كُلِّ – every شَىْءٍ – thing
|قَدِيرٌ||ق د ر||qadeerun||Always All Able||ability, power, one who has the ability or power to do something, to plan something|
He is able to do whatever He wants. It’s not difficult for Him and no one can stop Him. Allah does whatever He wants to do with planning and hikmah (wisdom).